Monday, September 16, 2019

Realism and Liberalism Essay

Introduction Realism and Liberalism are the two most prevalent ideologies in practicing and analyzing International Relations in the last two centuries. They are playing important roles in the states. They will directly affect the decision making of the governments and bring effects to the peace relations among countries. Realist mainly put a focus on state, power and national security. It was especially quite dominant in the first phase of the Cold War. On the other hand, Liberalism pays attention to people’s freedom and rights. It rose up after the World War II also the end of Cold War. From my point of view, to a large extent Realism and Liberalism are different from each other. They are quite opposite in theory. The differences between Realism and Liberalism outweigh the similarities. In this essay, I would elaborate these two ideologies in different aspects to talk about. Similarities between Realism and Liberalism Anarchy nature Firstly, for the similarities, both Realists and Liberals believe in anarchy nature of international system that it is leaderless in the world system. ‘The  major theories of international relations embrace the view that the international system is anarchic’ (Adem 2002: 19). Both admit that there is no sovereignty, rules or systems in the international system. However, these two ideologies got very different perceptions towards what they believe the states should do under this anarchic situation. The differences will be articulated below. Differences between Realism and Liberalism The views towards human nature For the differences, the first is that the Realists and the Liberals hold different beliefs towards human nature. Realists mainly are pessimistic and conservative. ‘It is essential not to have faith in human nature. Such faith is a recent heresy and a very disastrous one’ (Butterfield 149: 47). Realists believe in evil human nature. People are born with hatred and envy,  had original sin, war occurred constantly. They think that natural passion of human kind will bring out struggles among countries, ‘conflict is inevitable’ (Niebuhr 1932: xv). This can be manifest in the armament race in World War I. Every country tried to maximize their amounts of weapons and expand their armed forces at that time. Especially Britain and Germany, their relationship was worsened as there was a dreadnought building competition between them. Conflict is then occurred, paved the way to the World War I. Apart from this, during 1860s, the United States forced Japan to open its market at the threat of attack, which was beneficial for America only (Sr And Teresa 2013:16). Hence, they also perceive human are self-interested, interest is the most important thing of the state. Political action of the government is judged based on national interest (Morgenthau 1978: 4-15). Realists think that national interest is the most important thing of the state. On the contrary, Liberals mainly are optimistic and progressive. They interpret goodness exists in human nature. People are born to be kind, caring and helpful, willing to build trust with others. Apart from this, Liberals stress interdependence, believing cooperation can be enhanced in countries in order to reduce conflicts. Many intergovernmental organizations and institutions are formed in the late 19th century. They are made up of member states. For instance, European Union and World Trade Organization, they enhance political and economic cooperation among countries. Institutions enhance the economic cooperation and reducing the transactions cost among states (Keohane 1998: 82-94). Apart from this, the formation of United Nation was also a symbolic intergovernmental organization of Liberalism, providing a more understanding of human rights and reinforcing the protection of it. Therefore, witnessing the comparison above, the differences are clearly shown that the Realists and Liberals hold opposite views towards human nature. The different perspectives on ‘state’ The second difference is the way Realists and Liberals perceive ‘state’ in opposite angles. ‘State’ is the most important actor in Realism. They hold a view that sovereignty of the state indicates the independence of the  political community. Realists ‘Non-state actors such as international organizations are of use only for matters that do not concern immediate security interests’ (Harrison 2006: 21). Realists will simply ignore the other actors if the interest of the state is intervened. The most obvious of a nation’s desire is developing military and technology. The nuclear arm race between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War is a significant example. Atomic bomb was invented at that time which brought a huge threat towards world peace. Realists also advocate realpolitik, securing their own country’s interest before care about others’ welfare (Rourke 2007: 21). This shows realists are totally state -centered and tend to pursue self-interest. On the other hand, Liberals is not statism as Realists do. Liberals maintain good governance between people and state. Liberalism stresses the importance of individuality and liberation of human (Sr & Teresa 2013: 18). Liberals favor values like political and civil liberties, toleration and justice. Hence, Liberals emphasize more on non-state actors, for instance, multinational corporations like the International Media and non-governmental organizations like the Red Cross and the Green Peace. As the Liberals advocate international cooperation, they pay attention to other countries’ rights and interest. The International Monetary Fund promotes free trade and enhances the welfare among states. It is also responsible in reducing poverty by subsidizing to members who have difficulties in economy. In short, from the illustration above, it is manifest that Realism is state-centered while Liberalism focuses both state and other non-state factors. The Ways to view peace Thirdly, the ways to see peace between Realism and Liberalism varies. Realists think the best way to seek peace is to have balance of power. During the cold war, the two super powers, the United States and the Soviet Union were in bipolar system which was more peaceful. It was because of the domination of the two super powers, causing restrictions for the minor powers to become strong, conflicts were then reduced. The realists view power is a very crucial element. The best way to maintain peace is to be  powerful (Rourke 2007: 22). Becoming powerful, the national security can be enhanced, and therefore this will reduce the chance from attack. China nowadays is becoming powerful in every aspect after the Reform and Opening-up Policy in 1978. She tries to strengthen herself with both hard and soft power in order to avoid the invasion of other countries. She even became one of the members in the World Trade Organization in 2001. Besides, Realists believe every state is responsible to their own survival. However, some critics even argue that realists will rarely define peace. They would like to define peace as the absence of organized violence (Mapel 1996: 57). From the Liberals point of view, there are more ways to view peace. Liberals are altruism which they emphasis on cooperation. In order to maintain world peace, many international organizations are constructed to work on it. For instance, the United Nations would like to put a halt on the violation of human rights of the states. Apart from this, The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the military alliance, held a Science for Peace and Security programme in 2006 which aimed to promote peace and support civil science cooperation and innovation. International organizations brought contributions in maintaining world peace. Also, the Amnesty International, one of the non-governmental organizations, aimed to prevent abuse of human rights and fight for justice for those who have been violated. Liberalism also brings the idea of democratic peace. Liberals abandon wars against liberal democracies, but sometimes do not stop the war within illiberal states (Owen 1994: 93). They see illiberal states in some way dangerous and unenlightened thus they got no tolerance in them (Owen 1994: 96). In my opinion, there are quite many successful examples for Liberals in promoting peace, but still, their views toward peace are quite subjective, which brings limitations and loopholes to maintain peace in the future. In general, by the above comparisons with concrete examples, it is clearly shown that there is a huge difference between the ways Realists and Liberals view peace. Conclusion In conclusion, to large extent I think that Realism and Liberalism different from each other. The only similarity is that both of them believe that the anarchy nature is leaderless in the world system. The differences between  them are articulates with examples in various aspects. For the view towards human nature, Realists believe in evil human nature while Liberals believe in good ones. For the interpretation on ‘state’, Realists is state-centered, but Liberalists also focus on other non-state actors. For the ways they perceive peace, Realists advocate to have balance of power while Liberals enhances cooperation between nation states. It cannot be denied that Realism and Liberalism are two very distinct ideologies. From my point of view, these two concepts together with neorealism and neoliberalism will still play very important roles in the future of the International Relations. In order to secure the world peace in a sustainable way, I think the ideologies should coexist and strike a balance instead of only allowing one theory dominating the global world. Bibliography Adem, S. (2002) Anarchy, Order and Power in World Politics, Ashgate, Hampshire Art, R. and R. Jervis (2012) (eds.) International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (Eleventh edition) (London: Pearson) Baylis, J. and S. Smith and P. Owens (2013) (eds.) The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations (Sixth edition) (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Donnelly, J. (2000) Realism and International Relations, London: The Press Syndicate of the University Of Cambridge Dounan, M. (2011) Realist and Constructivist Approaches to Anarchy, [Online], Available: [29 Aug 2011] Harrison, T. (2006) Realism, sovereignty and international relations: An examination of power politics in the age of globalization, [Online], Available: Jackson, R. & Sorensen, G. (2013) Introduction to International Relations: Theories and Approaches, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press Jehangir, H. (2012) Realism, Liberalism and the Possibilities of Peace [Online], Available: [19 Feb 2012] Jumarang, B.K. (2011) Realism and Liberalism in International Relations [Online], Available: [02 Jul 2011] Keohane, R.O. (1998) ‘International Institutions: Can Interdependence Work?’, Foreign Policy, issue. 110, Spring, pp.82-94. Morgenthau, H.J. (1978) Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, Fifth Edition, Revised, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf), [Online], Available: Owen, J.M. (1994) ‘How Liberalism Produces Democratic Peace’, International Security, vol. 19, Fall, pp. 87-125. Rourke, J.T. (2007) International Politics on the World Stage, [Online], Available:,%20Liberalism,%20Constructivism.pdf Sr, I.N.M. & Teresa, E.U. (2013) ‘Liberalism and Realism: A Matrix For Political Economy’. International Journal of Business and Management Review, vol. 1, no.4, December, pp.15-25.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Importance of Minor Characters in Shakespear Essay

In the main plot of Shakespeare’s famous play Hamlet, Hamlet’s father, the king, is murdered, and as a result, Hamlet swears revenge and ultimately succumbs to madness. Hamlet plays the role of the protagonist, while his uncle, Claudius, serves as the antagonist of the story. Besides the two main characters, there are a number of secondary characters, of unusual importance both to the action and to the themes of the play. Many of the themes of the play, including decay and corruption, revenge, and appearance vs. eality, are outlined through the description and progression of the secondary characters. Shakespeare creates minor characters Ophelia, the ghost and Polonius to play a very crucial role in Hamlet as they shape the thematic elements of the play. The character of Ophelia plays the role of Hamlet’s love interest and is easily manipulated by her family; portraying various themes of the play through her actions and behaviour. At the onset of the play Ophelia appears to have her wits about her, with the ability to be objective and coherent when she recognizes the mad behaviour of Hamlet. In act 3 scene 1 during a contentious conversation between Ophelia and Hamlet, he expresses his disgust with Ophelia and women in general, insisting that â€Å"it hath made me mad†. Ophelia is able to identify the frantic behaviour of Hamlet proclaiming â€Å"oh what a noble mind is here o’erthrown! † Although Ophelia is of sound mind during this portion of the play, she quickly spirals out of control, losing her mind as a result of the murder of her father. Ophelia’s insanity is witnessed during act 4 scene 5 when she proceeds to sing everything she says â€Å"How can you tell the difference between you true lover and some other? Ophelia’s madness is also described by Horatio when he tells the queen â€Å"she is importunate, indeed distract†¦ says she hears there’s tricks I’ th’ world, and hems, and beats her heart, spurns enviously at straws, speaks things in doubt that carry but hald sense†. The tragic downfall of Ophelia depicted in the play illustrates the theme of decay and corruption. The ghost of Hamlets dead father, King Hamlet, drives Hamlets determination to avenge his father, setting the revenge plot into motion, a major theme in the play. Upon Hamlet and the ghost’s first meeting, he informs Hamlet of his father’s horrible murder by Claudius, encouraging him to avenge the king â€Å"revenge his foul and most unnatural murder†. Before even explaining to Hamlet the details of the murder Hamlet insists â€Å"haste me to know’t, that I, with wings as swift as meditation or the thoughts of love, may sweep my revenge†, driving the action of the play forward and initiating the theme. Although Hamlet swears to get revenge quickly his procrastination and uncertainty prevents him from achieving his goal. When Hamlet begins to veer away from his attempt to kill Claudius, obsessing over his mother’s behaviour, the ghost returns to remind him of his true purpose â€Å"do not forget. This visitation is but to whet thy almost blunted purpose†. The ghost is a constant reminder throughout the play of the theme of revenge, encouraging Hamlet to avenge his father. At the beginning of Hamlet, Polonius is introduced as the father of Laertes and Ophelia and is later revealed to illustrate the theme of appearance vs. reality. Polonius’ has the appearance of a well natured wise old man yet in reality he is a poor excuse for a man who’s obsessed with self gain. Polonius enjoys giving advice, including â€Å"this above all: to thine ownself be true, and it must follow, as the night the day, thou canst not then be false to any man†, insisting that if you are true to yourself, you cannot deceive anyone else. In reality, Polonius is in no position to be preaching about honesty and truthfulness, due to his shady behaviour spying on his children and Hamlet. Polonius presents himself as a very caring father, concerned about his children; however, in an attempt to keep an eye on his son, Laertes, he does not consider the possible repercussions of his plan. Polonius instructs his servant to spread rumors about his son, in the hopes of possibly discovering Laertes’s true behavior, disregarding Reynaldo’s protest that â€Å"that would dishonour him! † Due to his constant use of subterfuge, the character Polonius is one of the play’s best examples of the major theme of appearance vs. reality. It is uncommon in pieces of literature for secondary characters to be of such importance, both to the action and to the themes, as they are in Hamlet. The themes of the play, including decay and corruption, revenge, and appearance vs. reality, are highlighted through the description and progression of the secondary characters. Shakespeare creates minor characters Ophelia, the ghost and Polonius with the intention for them to play a very crucial role in Hamlet; shaping the thematic elements of the play. Secondary characters are often used in a play to supplement the main characters and the story line; however Shakespeare creates them with a much greater importance to reveal the themes of the play.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

World Environment Day

World Environment Day is celebrated each year on 5th June. The United Nations established in 1972 to mark the opening of the Stockholm Conference on Human Environment. World Environment Day is used by the United Nations to encourage awareness of the environment. The first World Environment Day held at Stockholm, was the first time political, social and economic problems of the global environment were discussed at great length in view of taking some definitive action.World Environment Day is celebrated in many ways. Street rallies, parades, street plays create awareness about world environment. In many cities contests like poster contests, essay contests, poetry contests, slogan contests and debates are held to celebrate this event further. The main objective always is to get the people involved with the environment. Some cities have art exhibitions with art made from recycled materials. Banners are put all across the street promoting the message of World Environment Day.Tree planting is also held in some cities. Awards are given out to those neighborhoods that have made a significant effort to take care of the environment. Broadcast of public service announcements on TV and radio help to renew people’s efforts to saving the environment. Conferences are held to educate people about the efforts that can be made to preserve the environment. The World Environment Day’s agenda is to give importance to environmental issues. It hopes to empower people to become active agents promoting the cause of the environment. Change can happen only if it is affected at the community level; hence programs are held on World Environment Day that creates community consciousness.Heads of Government and Ministers of Environment deliver speeches’ advising the people of what has already been achieved and what still needs to be achieved. Some even go a step further and set up permanent government bodies that will look specifically into environmental issues. Each World Environment Day has a special topic that related to the environment that it addresses. The topic for World Environment Day for 2007 was â€Å"Melting Ice – a good Topic?† It discussed the affects the climate change was having on the  polar ecosystems and communities and the resulting global impacts of these changes.The topic for World Environment Day 2006 was Deserts and Desertification and the slogan was â€Å"Don’t desert dry lands† World Environment Day is a day for us to inspect the state of our environment. It calls for us to stop in our tracks one day in the year and examine our surroundings. It asks us to pledge, in a small way at least, to do something for the environment. The young and the old can contribute to the saving of the environment.Not everyone needs to make hefty contributions to world environment organizations. The little things, the ones that really matter are things like recycling our waste, using paper and products made of wood d iscriminately and these can be done by anybody and everybody. Children can also contribute to this cause by not wasting water, by switching off the lights and fans in the house when not in use. There is something each of us can do to preserve the environment. So let us all pledge to do something, at least one thing.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Crash Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Crash - Essay Example Hysteric Jean became suspicious of him because he also changes locks at the Persian shop owned by Farhad. They have a Mexican maid she trusts. Farhad had a break in at his shop, so he went with his daughter Dorri to buy a gun. He suspected Daniel, the locksmith, because they had a misunderstanding and he did not pay him for his last job. So found his address and tried to shoot him, but Daniel’s daughter jumps in-front of him. Luckily, the gun had no bullets, so no one is hurt. Police officers John Ryan and Tom Hanson work together. Hanson feels Ryan is racist so he wants to file a complaint but the boss refuses because they could both loose their jobs. Hanson gave Peter a lift one day but shoots him because he thought he had a gun, they then throw his body out on the street. Ryan calls his very sick fathers’ health insurance company for his medication but yells at the black customer service lady. Ryan pulls over film directors Cameron and Christine who get into a fight after she is inappropriately touched by Ryan and believes her husband should have stopped

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Blooms Taxonomy Higher Order Thinking Skills Essay

Blooms Taxonomy Higher Order Thinking Skills - Essay Example The article is quite relevant to my classroom work. After acquisition of knowledge, I need to teach my students to take it to other levels of understanding, applying, analysing, and evaluating. This way, education will be relevant to them and to the entire society. In addition, this type of learning provokes students to innovate new ways of doing things and stop depending on others for intellectual knowledge. Having taught for many years, sometimes I do not need to carry teaching guidebooks to my lessons. This is because during my college years, my lecturers used Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) related educational objectives teaching methods, which have influenced my teaching skills greatly. I particularly recall an incidence when our general subject lectures tested our HOTS. Each of us received a copy of 150 words with information on a certain national anthem of a country in Africa. The first step was a test on how well we can vividly remember the words. The lecturer divided us into groups of three and we were supposed to do a presentation to the class. After thirty minutes, many students could memorise the Anthem. Next, it was required of us to give meaning to different words in the anthem. The lecturer helped us on the complex words that we could not comprehend and later gave us instructions to write an article of something we believed in to determine if we could apply the knowledge learned in real life. We satisfied the lecturer that we could really apply what we had learned and he proceeded to ask meaning of different phrases in our articles. The whole setting was exciting and the entire group of student’s mood was set up. We even wrote new articles in different contexts of things we believed in, after which we evaluated the new articles describing their purpose and their relevance in real life. When in class with my students, I have learned the importance of applying Blooms higher order of thinking skills. My students are alert at any given tim e and their level of understanding is quite high. For instance, when I was teaching a topic on angles and elevations, I encouraged the students to think beyond basic formulas. The purpose of any kind of learning is to enable the student to gain knowledge. After a week of thorough learning on this topic, I wanted to know how much my students had absorbed. Therefore, I called for an impromptu maths class to review this topic. Students were required to recall a wide range of materials in relation to different angles that exist and the formulas for their calculation. According to Saint Paul Public schools, â€Å"Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in cognitive domain† (Saint Paul Public Schools). At this point, I took advantage of giving the students examples other than those given in classes to test if they could transform the materials from one form to another. Students could solve given problems with the knowledge, theories, and concepts of angles learne d in class. Satisfied that students could remember and apply what I had taught them, it was time to analyse if the students got the deep meaning of the topic. One of the question I recall asking is â€Å"what is an obtuse angle.† The questions continued until I was quite sure that most of the students, if not all, were well versed with the topic. Later on, students formulated their own questions on the topic, some that included real life problems. For instance, one bright student’

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Management report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Management report - Essay Example When they started, the manager revealed that they used to test many different suppliers in order to choose the best ones. After this process, and through experience, now they already know who the best is and they buy only from them. Concurrently, the manager also noted that some of the sellers are actually friends with people that work at the restaurant. They purchase ingredients, such as meat, fish, vegetables and other fresh stuff, on a daily basis at local Indian/Bengali shops. Accordingly, there are plenty of them in the neighbourhood, as there are 50 Indian, Bengali, Thai, and Asian restaurants in this area. So they tested different suppliers and chose the best ones. It was emphasized that it took years of experience. Now, the Cinnamon Brick Lane Restaurant are acknowledged to be the best, legendary, and renowned. The standard of quality also means possessing secret recipes appreciated by the worlds best chefs. 2 The fact that food critics who graced the restaurant provided exemplary reviews evidently indicates that the establishment is viewed as one that serves high quality food, diverse menus and exemplary service. The official website of the restaurant cited the results from two of the food critics who visited their establishment, to wit: â€Å"Among our many accolades include food critic and Michelin chef Pat Chapman, in the Cobra Good Food Guide, and Humayun Khan - from TANDOORI MAGAZINE, who gave rave reviews on his last visit to Cinnamon for his favourite dish, the LEMON-GRASS CHICKEN, recommending Cinnamon as one of the best Indian/ Bangladeshi restaurants in Britain. View London also highly recommends Cinnamon as one of the best in Brick Lane†.3 Likewise, due to the high quality, great taste of its food, exemplary service, and consistently positive customer satisfaction rating s, the Cinnamon Brick Lane Restaurant was also revealed to have been patronized by other celebrities and famous personalities such as Jeremy Guscott, a former

Relegation System in Major League Soccer Term Paper

Relegation System in Major League Soccer - Term Paper Example Major League Soccer or what is popularly known as MLS is the official soccer league of United States of America. The tournament is endorsed by United States Soccer Federation and Don Garber is its present commissioner. Major League Soccer (MLS) was started in the year of 1993; however, the first session of competition was staged in the year 1996 with just10 teams. The teams were owned by the franchisees and are operated and functioned by its stakeholders. The present format of MLS has 19 teams who play with each other on a home-away basis. Among the 19 teams, 16 are from the US and the other 3 teams are from Canada. Some of the noticeable teams of the tournament include LA Galaxy, Montreal Impact, Toronto FC Dallas and Real Salt Lake among many others. The first season of the tournament witnessed record attendance however it felt below the expected level from the next season onwards. People started to lose interest in soccer as other sports such as baseball, basketball took the elite positions. The condition revived when players such as David Beckham, Cuauhtemoc Blanco joined the league as players of respective teams. The primary rationale behind the commencement of MLS was to strengthen the national football team of US. The quality of the league was in doubt when the USA was eliminated from the opening stages in the 1998 soccer world cup. Apart from that, 1994 Soccer world cup that was staged in the US was also another reason. The professional league helped the country to bid for the tournament.  ... The first season of the tournament witnessed record attendance however it felt below the expected level from the next season onwards. People started to lose interest on soccer as other sports such as baseball, basketball took the elite positions. The condition revived when players such as David Beckham, Cuauhtemoc Blanco joined the league as players of respective teams (Dure, 2010, p.xvi). The primary rational behind the commencement of MLS was to strengthen the national football team of US. Nonetheless the quality of the league was on doubt, when USA was eliminated from the opening stages in the 1998 soccer world cup. Apart from that, 1994 Soccer world cup that was staged in US was also another reason. The professional league helped the country to bid for the tournament. Formulation of Mission and Vision statements Mission and vision statements are important for running a venture. Also in case of MLS mission and vision statements, holds an important position. MLS was started in the year 1993 for the purpose of establishing a particular objective. Moreover in order to achieve the objective one needs to have clear vision of the future. While on the other hand a mission statement is being used to describe the purposes or aims of the new association. Hence it can be justified that mission and vision statement plays an indispensable role. The newly developed mission and vision statement for MLS are formulated below. Mission Statement To offer the country with new talents in football and also to encourage upcoming talents in the field of soccer. To enthuse the world of sports lovers by showcasing highest quality of entertainment. Vision Statement ‘We